English Passive Voice

Passive Voice или Пассивный залог, это форма выражения, которая делает акцент на объект, а не субъект.


Passive Voice используют, когда:


• Хотят подчеркнуть объект действия



President Kennedy was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald.(passive)

Lee Harvey Oswald killed President Kennedy.(active)


• Неизвестно, кто произвёл действие



My wallet has been stolen.(passive)

Somebody has stolen my wallet.(active)


• Тот, кто произвёл действие, не важен



Our house is being painted.(passive)

XYZ Company is painting our house.(active)


• Тот, кто произвёл действие, очевиден



I am paid weekly.(passive)

My company pays me weekly.(active)


Действия могут производить все.



The emergency services can be called by dialling 911.(passive)

The public can call the emergency services by dialling 911.(active)



Пишут формальные и научные тексты



Potassium was added and mixed in. The solution was heated to 80°C and then allowed to cool.(passive)

The technician added potassium and mixed it in. The technician heated the solution to 80°C and then allowed it to cool.(active)


• Хотят обезличить исполнителя действия



Mistakes were made and unfortunately never rectified.(passive)

The Prime Minister made mistakes and unfortunately never rectified them.(active)



В разговорной речи Passive Voice употребляется не так часто как в формальной. Обычно используется в отчётах, научных статьях, инструкциях. Там, где ситуация или действия рассматриваются как более значимые, чем тот кто их совершил.


Passive Voice всегда основан на активных конструкциях и привязан к ним, поскольку фактически это выражение той же мысли, но иными словами, с перемещением акцентов с субъекта на объект.



В таблице представлены примеры предложений в активном и пассивном залоге для каждой английской конструкции.

Конструкция Активный залог/ Active Voice Пассивный залог/ Passive Voice
Present Simple How does one pronounce his name? How is his name pronounced?
Past Simple They didn't fix my phone yesterday. My phone wasn't fixed yesterday
Future Simple They will hang him at dawn. He will be hanged at dawn.
Present Progressive (Continuous) Ati's helping Tara. Tara's being helped by Ati.
Past Progressive    (Continuous) They were interrogating him when I called. He was being interrogated when I called.
Future Progressive (Continuous) They won't be questioning him when you get there. He won't be being questioned when you get there.
Present Perfect Kid has served dinner. Dinner has been served.
Past Perfect I wondered why they hadn't invited me. I wondered why I hadn't been invited.
Future Perfect They will have repaired your car by 7pm. Your car will have been repaired by 7pm.
Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) The police have been watching that house for weeks. That house has been being watched for weeks


Что касается Пассивного залога конструкций Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) и Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous), то пишут, что составить его можно, но он неудобен, а потому редок.

Выглядит это так

Конструкция Активный залог/ Active Voice Пассивный залог/ Passive Voice
Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) She wasn't sure how long they'd been following her. She wasn't sure how long she'd been being followed
Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous) They'll have been treating her for exactly three months tomorrow. She'll have been being treated for exactly three months tomorrow



Passive Voice примеры предложений

Harry ate six shrimp at dinner. (active)

At dinner, six shrimp were eaten by Harry. (passive)


Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah. (active)

The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes. (passive)


Sue changed the flat tire. (active)

The flat tire was changed by Sue. (passive)


We are going to watch a movie tonight. (active)

A movie is going to be watched by us tonight. (passive)


I ran the obstacle course in record time. (active)

The obstacle course was run by me in record time. (passive)


The crew paved the entire stretch of highway. (active)

The entire stretch of highway was paved by the crew. (passive)


Mom read the novel in one day. (active)

The novel was read by Mom in one day. (passive)


The critic wrote a scathing review. (active)

A scathing review was written by the critic. (passive)


I will clean the house every Saturday. (active)

The house will be cleaned by me every Saturday. (passive)


The staff is required to watch a safety video every year. (active)

A safety video will be watched by the staff every year. (passive)


She faxed her application for a new job. (active)

The application for a new job was faxed by her. (passive)


Tom painted the entire house. (active)

The entire house was painted by Tom. (passive)


The teacher always answers the students’ questions. (active)

The students’ questions are always answered by the teacher. (passive)


The choir really enjoys that piece. (active)

That piece is really enjoyed by the choir. (passive)


Who taught you to ski? (active)

By whom were you taught to ski? (passive)


The forest fire destroyed the whole suburb. (active)

The whole suburb was destroyed by the forest fire. (passive)


The two kings are signing the treaty. (active)

The treaty is being signed by the two kings. (passive)


The cleaning crew vacuums and dusts the office every night. (active)

Every night the office is vacuumed and dusted by the cleaning crew. (passive)


Larry generously donated money to the homeless shelter. (active)

Money was generously donated to the homeless shelter by Larry. (passive)


No one responded to my sales ad. (active)

My sales ad was not responded to by anyone. (passive)


The wedding planner is making all the reservations. (active)

All the reservations will be made by the wedding planner. (passive)


Susan will bake two dozen cupcakes for the bake sale. (active)

For the bake sale, two dozen cookies will be baked by Susan. (passive)


The science class viewed the comet. (active)

The comet was viewed by the science class. (passive)


Who ate the last cookie? (active)

The last cookie was eaten by whom? (passive)


Alex posted the video on Facebook. (active)

The video was posted on Facebook by Alex. (passive)


The director will give you instructions. (active)

Instructions will be given to you by the director. (passive)


Thousands of tourists view the Grand Canyon every year. (active)

The Grand Canyon is viewed by thousands of tourists every year. (passive)


The homeowners remodeled the house to help it sell. (active)

The house was remodeled by the homeowners to help it sell. (passive)


The team will celebrate their victory tomorrow. (active)

The victory will be celebrated by the team tomorrow. (passive)


The saltwater eventually corroded the metal beams. (active)

The metal beams were eventually corroded by the saltwater. (passive)


The kangaroo carried her baby in her pouch. (active)

The baby was carried by the kangaroo in her pouch. (passive)


Some people raise sugar cane in Hawaii. (active)

Sugar cane is raised by some people in Hawaii. (passive)